And since smoking itself is associated with heart disease, and since the goal of the AHA is to get smokers to quit, by outlawingtobacco if necessary, the end justifies the means. Given the bias of such researchers, their tendency tomake leaps of faith when interpreting inconclusive data and the difficultyof eliminating confounding factors, one cannot accept with any issues essays degree ofcertainty that what they claim is true. So where are the mystery deaths caused by "respiratory illnesses" that canbe blamed on ETS? In the not too distant past, researchers (using smokers' tax dollars, naturally) claimed that non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke over a longperiod of time exhibited a tiny but measurable increase in fatty deposits ontheir arterial walls. Look: mycharts prove it!" And that is exactly what is being repeated today. If pressed, anti-smokers will, as if by rote, recite ". The degreeof this "aggravation" I shall examine in a moment. Historical only: archive of obsolete posts. His fieldof expertise notwithstanding, he gets paid handsomely for doing what heloves most: slandering smokers. Cancer, the reason science enjoys such weight and credibility is that it hasgenerally been structured so as to encourage a wide scrutiny of methods, data and findings, peer review and a healthy debate from all the end, faulty. But it is akin to saying"nuclear bombs, biological warfare and firecrackers." So far, in this country anti-smokers have enjoyed free rein to make wildclaims about ETS without having to back them up with rigorous evidence inan objective, impartial setting such as a court of law.
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More than 5,100 Americans suffered fatal asthma attacksin 1991, up from about 2,600 in 1979. It is pure fantasy. This claim is not justabsurd. Warranties, in other words, are the responsibility of the manufacturer, not thedistributor. The American Heart Association says that secondhand smoke causes50,000 fatal heart attacks in Americans each year.
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Title, abstract, author, all ClassificationsA: General Economics and TeachingB: History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox ApproachesC: Mathematical and Quantitative MethodsD: MicroeconomicsE: Macroeconomics and Monetary EconomicsF: International EconomicsG: Financial EconomicsH: Public EconomicsI: Health, Education, and WelfareJ: Labor issues essays and Demographic EconomicsK: Law and EconomicsL. An unspecified number of Americans are dying each year from"respiratory illnesses" attributable to secondhand smoke. The damage done by these studies took decades to undo, whilemillions suffered. Of the 30 studies on spousal smoking referred to in the EPA report, only 6found any statistically significant association between ETS and cancer innonsmokers married to smokers, and none found a strong relative risk. They can setout to prove a pet theory, they can ignore data which contradicts a favoredhypothesis, and they can read into data facts which simply aren't there. When coronary arteries become soclogged up that sufficient blood can no longer pass, a fatal heart attackcan result. The simplest is this. On the other, smokers and thetobacco companies. Enter Stanton Glantz, PhD. Cancer, heart disease and respiratory illnesses" causes many to believepeople die this way and to repeat the rumor.
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The Brownson issues essays study was available to the EPA, but was not used in its report. The data they used, however, failsto bear this out: virtually all of the studies used either found no risk atall or a risk so weak that it would not be considered significant if appliedto other subjects. Both conclusions share an insidious and horrifyingcircularity: if the subject of the slur has the temerity to question theevidence, the response is "You can't believe him, he's stupid. The EPA's studies on ETS operate under a "zero threshold" hypothesis, or theassumption that if huge quantities of something are dangerous, thenmicroscopic quantities are dangerous also. Finally, thosegainsayers who actually manage to make themselves heard are refuted not withdata and reason but with character assassination. AHA representatives are to be seen andheard at every City Council hearing on proposed anti-smoking ordinances, where they parrot this pernicious poppycock ad nauseum.
However, let us assume for the issues essays sakeof argument that the phenomenon is real, and proceed. Second, it stifles dissent by excludingdissenters from the process of review and by using ad hominem arguments toquestion their character and motives. Yet the EPA used an oddsratio.19 - considerably smaller than that of chlorinated tap water -to classify ETS as a human carcinogen. Respiratory Illnesses The phrase "respiratory illnesses when used in connection with ETS, isusually found appended to a list of other claims, as in "cancer, heartdisease and.". The argument that this is being done "for smokers' own good" is demeaning:our bodies are not government property.
In our own country, studies claiming a lower IQamong African Americans (referred to in the studies as "Negroes "justified"segregation. The arterial deposits in question are caused by diets rich in fats andcholesterol, and by lack of exercise. Ever looked over the shoulder of a Straight-A-Student? He also found a receptive audiencein the American Heart Association, which acts as a sort of wholesaledistributor for his misinformation. In recent years, however, they have made greatprogress using the theory that smoking is bad for the health of others: thatEnvironmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) can, in fact, be deadly. Thetime is long overdue for smokers to stand up for their rights: to becomeaware of the issues, armed with facts and willing to work to restore theirfreedom, their dignity and their rightful place in society. Clearly, some scapegoat other than ETSwill have to be found. The onlydifferenceis that the group out of favor today is smokers.
Secondhand Smoke: The BigLie, anti-smokers have long tried to restrict smoking on the grounds that it wasbad for smokers' health. The argument that smoke is harmful to othersis nothing but a subterfuge: the risk of second-hand smoke exposure has beenso outrageously distorted that it amounts to an outright lie. Comments: 35 516, ratings: 624 445, members: 363 302, members online:. Are you going to quit barbecuing? Even if the odds ratio.19 is eventually foundto be accurate and not the result of random variation, what this would meanis that instead of the 6 lung cancers per year normally expected in apopulation of 100,000, we might find. Pressed further, the antis willbackpedal to the claim that ETS "aggravates" these conditions. They are aimed at the technical community, to explain reasons, provide a framework to provide consistency for future developments, and avoid repetition of discussions once resolved. Nazi Germany in the thirties? No, America in the nineties. So get inspired, use others research and bibliographies. First, instead of startingwith a hypothesis and data and deriving from that a conclusion, it does justthe opposite: starting with a desired conclusion, it then selects data inorder to support the hypothesis. Group A incidentally, doesnot mean "extra deadly".
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Moreimportantly, the two largest and most recent studies, one of which waspartially funded by the National Cancer Institute, were omitted fromconsideration altogether. But none of these ailments iscaused by smoking, much less by ETS. Smokers are banned from universities, libraries, most places of business and the halls of ey have been denied employment and fired from their jobs for smoking at home. It seems to round off the list nicely and is purposelyleft vague. Had it been included, the conclusions would have had to have been reviseddownwards to show no risk. Second, and more seriously, our government, which was elected to serve(not rule!) us, is now in the business of bashing the politically at phrase, once used humorously, is now starting to acquire the sinistertone that it carries in China. Go ahead give our search engine a spin, browse the subject list or learn more about the site. The total risk for all groups averages out toexactly 1, or no risk at all. Each year some 1,000,000 Americans die from heartdisease. Non smokers would have to live with ETS for upwards of2,000 years to incur the same damage.
Since 1979, the number of smokers has declined significantly, from about33 of adults, or higher, to a proportion varyingly reported as being from20. He then wrote a thick paper saying. The issues essays EPA is guilty on both counts. It simply means "human".). First, however, someinteresting numbers bear looking. Thestudies actually used by the EPA were limited to 11 studies done in theUnited States. These statements of architectural principle explain the thinking behind the specifications.