Cases of the, swine, flu date as far back as 1918 where a worldwide pandemic emerged from the human influenza A (H1N1) virus. . Advertisements: Another type of vaccine, named Influenza A H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine Live, Intranasal, made available during the first week in October 2009, is a live attenuated H1N1 flu vaccine that contains no thimerosal, and is sprayed into the nostrils. However, there are particular cases where some individuals lack a strong immune system therefore, it is more likely that they will get infected by the same virus again. The disease emerged again essay on swine flu 2009 outbreak in a confined army base in Fort Dix, New Jersey where 230 individuals were infected including one fatality (Petrosillo 165). . Retrieved 6/15, 2009, from t/csr/don/ 2009 _06_15/en/ml. Taking into consideration the alarming history of the many epidemics that the world has witnessed, the government was expecting a new virus to emerge and that everyone would see another pandemic. Later on, in 2009 as mentioned, the disease infected humans all over the world and the investigations revealed two main antigens Hi (hemagglutinin type 1) and N1 (neuraminidase type 1 which gave this pandemic the name H1N1. During this time period, an outbreak of the disease was also present in Mexico. Reasortment events of; Avian, human, and swine Influenza A virus strains, brought into existence the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 (Kasowski,.
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In November 1977, a different H1N1 strain emerged in former Soviet Union and essay on swine flu 2009 outbreak China; whereby, the disease infected young children. . The objective of this paper is to focus on the information and to clearly establish all measures of the outbreak, pathogenesis, epidemiology, response, and preparedness. It would later be characterized as a human-to-human transmissible case of swine flu. Fever (100 F or greater cough, nasal secretions, fatigue, and headache Some patients also get nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The Mexican government decided to go forth with the authorization, and the Samples collected from the ARI cases were sent to the National Microbiology Lab (NML) of the Public health agency of Canada and the influenza division of the. Sneezing, coughing, and nasal secretions need to be kept away from other people. Hi (hemagglutinin type 1) and N1 (neuraminidase type 1).
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Retrieved 11,16, 2011, from /files/H1N1_1_final. In cases the patients need to leave homes, they essay on swine flu 2009 outbreak should wear special surgical face masks which can be purchased in every drug store to reduce the amount of droplets spray while sneezing or coughing. Vise versa, a positive result for A type may be a sign of swine flu (H1N1). Particularly, the mutations in surface proteins result in antigen drift, which helps the virus to escape the immunity of its host (Dogra 167). . Swine, flu in the United States, essay, sample. Furthermore, touching an object that has been in the presence of a flu virus is quite dangerous if there is no immediate sanitation of the hands. Influenza at the human-animal interface (HAI) Retrieved, 2012, from World Health,. Prior to the 2009 pandemic, The World Health Organization predicted that the next pandemic would be caused by the Influenza A subtype, which was said to be most likely from avian origin (World Heath,.
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However, the accuracy essay on swine flu 2009 outbreak of these tests is questionable. Probably, all those trying to prevent being infected by swine influenza should stick to the basic rules and take care of the immune system before the rise of disease as it happened in 2009. The H1N1 Influenza pandemic of 2009 is a simple reminder of how unpredictable the nature of the influenza virus really is (Kasowski,. Swine influenza virus was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in the US and has been recognized by pork producers and veterinarians to cause infections in pigs worldwide. Many professionals have difficulty explaining the cause of different strains, but modern studies found unique genetic characteristics within the H1N1 virus. Infected people can wear surgical masks to reduce the amount of droplet spray from coughs and sneezes and throw away contaminated tissues. The virus struck with amazing speed, often killing its victims within just hours of the first signs of infection. The WHO has declared H1N1 on its pandemic scale-alert, designating the Influenza H1N1 2009 a potential threat to worldwide health and declared the outbreak as Public Health Emergency of International Concern (Tandon 161). . If the test is positive for type B, the flu is not likely to be swine flu (H1N1).
If it is positive for type A, the essay on swine flu 2009 outbreak person could have a conventional flu strain or swine flu (H1N1). They immediately began research and began to thoroughly investigate the disease, as well as taking action and developing clinical facilities in many cities to collect clinical samples from patients as well as provide them with medical attention. Advertisements: In June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) determined that H1N1 2009 influenza A swine flu reached WHO level 6 criteria (person- to-person transmission in two separate WHO-determined world regions) and declared it as the first flu pandemic in 41 years. Due to the genetic mutation, the strain is much different than influenza A strains, and much more difficult to treat. . The test can be both negative or positive for A or B type. The Influenza virus soared across the globe and according to the WHO (2012 within 1 month, 32 countries had reported human cases of the H1N1 influenza (World Heath,. NIH contributed extensively in helping containing the disease. In situations where it is absolutely necessary to enter a crowded setting or to have close contact with persons who might be ill, the time spent in that setting should be as short as possible.
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Retrieved 8/10, 2010, from ml Juno,. How to recognize and prevent H1N1? Furthermore it was also predicted that majority of the population wouldnt be able to resist the disease, in terms of immunology and how strong peoples immune systems were. The, swine, flu has become a highly feared disease that has caused the deaths of thousands of individuals within the United States and abroad. . Influenza pandemic lessons and vaccine efforts (1st.).
Swine, flu that has resulted in over 162,380 reported cases and 1,154 associated deaths (Petrosillo 163). . Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Both these vaccines have been approved only after they had conducted clinical trials to prove that the vaccines were safe and effective. It can be done by frequent hand washing, avoiding touching your hands to your face, and avoiding any close proximity to or essay on swine flu 2009 outbreak touching any person who may have flu symptoms. Two antiviral agents zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu) have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu. Nevertheless, the quick tests of the kind remain questionable as for the accuracy of the result, which is why the patient should be diagnosed differently.
Soon enough, it was confirmed by many authorized facilities including CDC, and essay on swine flu 2009 outbreak NML that there has been an underlying presence of a genetically similar pH1N1 virus taken from samples in Mexico. So fast did the 1918 strain overwhelm the body's natural defenses, that the usual cause of death in influenza patients-a secondary infection of lethal pneumonia-oftentimes never had a chance to establish itself. In general, this test is done in a specialized laboratory. Advertisements: Perhaps the best way for individuals to try to prevent H1N1 infection is a combination of methods that are aimed at fulfilling the very basic principle that if H1N1 doesnt reach an individuals mucus membrane cells, infection will be prevented. In other words, the viral strain has evolved and developed genetic immunity to the human immune system and medicinal treatments used for the common flu.
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With the essay on swine flu 2009 outbreak smallest hint of a swine flue infection cause, which is cough, running nose, fever, general body fatigue accompanied with headache, the patient is obliged to be diagnosed have a quick test to see if theres. The pandemic subsided shortly after 1918, but sporadic cases of the H1N1 virus continued to appear. . Within no time, the H1N1 influenza virus made its way to 5 states in the.S., and approximately 19 Mexican states, and on April 25th, 2009 the WHO general publicized a public health emergency (Juno,. This will cause your body to strengthen its immune system so that it is more familiar and alert with the virus, so next time it tires to get in your system, it can fight it off. Essay, topic: Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website! However, the only way you can be almost definite that the virus will never show up in your immune system would be getting infected at least once. The amount of information collected to determine all aspects of the virus, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and virology of the illness is extraordinary. In case the test is negative, theres no swine flu. Also, they are not recommended if the flu symptoms already have been present for 48 hours or more, although hospitalized patients may still be treated past the 48- hour guideline. The bird flu is mainly caused by viruses that circulate in wild animals, as well as swine influenza virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 (Bartolotti,. The first case of H1N1 influenza was publicized in the United States on April 15th, 2009. Influenza pandemic epidemiologic and virologic diversity: Reminding ourselves of the possibilities. But at the close of the First World War, when Spanish, flu appeared, the world was a very different place.
However, it is not advisable to use these drugs indiscriminately, because viral resistance to them can and has occurred. Instead, the virus caused an uncontrollable hemorrhaging that filled the lungs, and patients would drown in their own body fluids. There are many examples of this; some would say the landing of Christopher Columbus and the Holocaust, others might say the Columbine Massacre and the several school shootings that followed that. Without taking much time at all, the President signed the Appropriations Act, 2009, on June 26th, which immediately provided.9 billion, and an additional.8 billion for the use of additional funds (Bartolotti,. According to the World Health Organization (WHO as of July 31, 2009, 168 independent countries have reported at least one confirmed case. How the patients should be cured to recover? No wonder people thought the social order was breaking down. The normal age distribution for flu mortality was completely reversed, and had the effect of gouging from society's infrastructure the bulk of those responsible for its day to day maintenance. Between the time period of April 26 and September 26 2009, among 1,479 recognized hospitalized cases occurred in Canada where patients were disclosed to an intensive care unit (ICU) majority of the patients managed to defeat the disease. Frequent hand washing with soap and water, avoiding spitting, covering the nose and mouth when sneezing, cleaning surfaces regularly using alcohol, and not sharing any objects with an infected person are all important factors to consider when trying to protect yourself (Stephenson,. The new H1N1 virus appears to be a mixture of avian, porcine, and human influenza RNA. .
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The CDC labeled the new strain the, swine, flu and a large epidemic began in the United States. . The group to vaccinated includes pregnant women, the staff working in health-care industry, people of those professions who work with children aged under 6 months, and each and every person with a weak stamina and immune system. The best treatment for influenza infections in humans is prevention by vaccination. Retrieved 2/10, 2009, from m Colon,. Otherwise, if the test shows a positive result for B type, theres no need to worry about flu infection. With the rise of the illness the first symptoms of SIV were noticed and recognized specifically in the local environments where people were close to pigs, for instance, farmers. New York: Nova Science.
Not only was the Spanish, flu (as it came to be known) strikingly virulent, but it displayed an unusual preference in its choice of victims-tending to select young healthy adults over those with weakened immune systems. We will write a custom essay on, influenza Pandemic 2009 specifically for you for only.38.90/page, order now, the original influenza A (H1N1) is a disease that causes harsh symptoms in the respiratory area. Due to the extreme essay on swine flu 2009 outbreak increase of the prevalence of the H1N1 viral strain, many researchers have worked hard to develop a history of the viral strain, a list of characteristics of the disease, and possible vaccinations or treatment. Influenza A strains consist of two important proteins that are responsible for virulence: Hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) (Bartolotti,. Genomic analysis indicates that it is closely related to common reassortant swine influenza A viruses that have been isolated in North America, Europe, and Asia in the last 20 years (Petrosillo 171). .
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Firstly, it is important to develop communication strategies for managing public expectations about pandemic vaccine availability. This was due to human physical contact, in which the virus was transmitted (Juno,. It was first spotted in California and Texas, but soon managed to spread across the globe. This vaccine is approved for use in ages 6 months to the elderly, including pregnant females. Symptomatic people should stay at home, avoid crowds, and take off from work or school until the disease is no longer transmittable (about essay on swine flu 2009 outbreak two to three weeks) or until medical help and advice is sought. This new pandemic spiraled out of control unexpectedly causing the World Health Organization (WHO) to call it the first pandemic of the 21st century, due to many outbreaks across the globe (Bartolotti,. Margaret Chan declared an end to the H1N1 Influenza pandemic, of 2009 on August 10th, 2010.
St?mp's sound is less yer traditional ceilidh and more a kind of mixture of Flook, Tull, Sw?p crossbreed with fiddle (Kevin Adams) and English-concertina (Sheena Masson) to the fore in place of accordion/melodeon, and displaying a strong European influence and. FOX fiction THE devils saddle (1948) PDF william francis fiction rough ON rats (1942) PDF PAT frank fiction alas, babylon (1959) PDF. Times, Sunday Times (2012)Public anger at his autocratic ways and government corruption essay on swine flu 2009 outbreak boiled over into mass street protests last year. According to his social theory of 'bioeconomics', man's economic struggle to work and earn a livelihood is largely a continuation and extension of the biological struggle to sustain life and survive. A Different Season is a very impressive debut indeed: I might say, one of shee-er brilliance! If Theatre of the Unheard is to be thought of as musical drama then Darrell Scott's role is that of the 'honest man' making his way through life and sharing his thoughts the best way he knows how. Chester fiction hawk OF THE wilderness (1935) PDF kioga OF THE wilderness (1936) PDF. Isaiah Berlin, Liberty (Oxford 2004). 8 Weimar Germany edit Main article: Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic Following Germany's defeat in World War I, political instability resulted in murders and assassinations of hundreds of political figures. A person with schizophrenia often hears voices, experiences delusions and hallucinations and may believe thoughts, feelings and Continue Reading 1013 Words 5 Pages Living with Schizophrenia The mind is indeed a beautiful thing. And of course this care and attention goes right through the whole package, including the admirably informative booklet notes. Here they are, this year celebrating 40 years with the release of their 21st album, a brand new studio set on which they bring typical flair and imagination to their interpretations of a whole host of traditional songs. Her light-textured voice is probably at its most seductive on Molla na gCuadh N Chuilleanáin, although she can't be faulted anywhere she appears.