In Dipankars definition of modernity first place or priority is given to the above four attributes, and once these attributes are in place, it does not really matter if there is a high level of technology, super fast transit system, or consumerism. Family connections, privileges of caste and status, as well as the willingness to break every law in the book characterize our social relations very deeply. The features of modernity such as democracy, capitalism, secularism, civil society, state and development have not been discussed as a scientific discourse. They have kept themselves from any study of modernity. Known for his holistic approach to design, Charles Correa transformed the architectural landscape in India throughout the course of his career. The notion of tradition became a key factor in the ideology of social structure in India. Caste is reorganized to suit to the needs of the politicians. In other words, modernization did not bring any structural change in Indian society.
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The discussion on modernity at a book length level has been done by Yogendra Singh in his book, Modernization of Indian Tradition (1994) and Lloyd Rudolph and Susanne Rudolph in their work, The Modernity of Tradition. And, then, importantly, what is the direction of modernization or social change? And, for him, westernization also means primarily the British impact. Advertisements: For instance,.P. During this period essay on modernity in indian homes social change was also studied with the perspective of Marxism. How do we define modernity in the light of change studies, which are available to us in Indian sociology?
Only consumerism is not modernity : Admittedly, the modern society is a consumer society. Commenting on the approach.P. There is sanskritization at the level of caste system; there is westernization or modernization at the nation-state level. Modernization is more widespread at the individual level than sanskritization. Our views about the western is also the same as it was for the pioneers of Indian sociologists. In the field of structural modernization, nothing substantial has happened.
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However, an in-depth analysis of change studies indicates that sociologists have adopted two broad approaches in the study of modernization in India. If modernity is multi-dimensional, Indian modernity is determined by Indian traditions. Such a kind of social conditions in Europe created modernity. The British Council in New Delhi was built in 1992 and features a mural by British artist Howard Hodgkin Courtesy of riba. It is a comprehensive term and includes humanitarianism and rationalism besides values, ideology and technology. But what may be essential to modernization is the commitment to scientific worldview, the internalization of humanistic and philosophical viewpoint of science on contemporary problems and not merely the volume of technological achievement. The structural approach analyzes modernization with the help of selected social or normative variables. Modernity, therefore, has remained an untouched area. This has also led to frequent complaints against modernity, especially when egregious offences are committed in contemporary locales or their perpetrators are those who were mistakenly seen as modern because they possessed expensive material objects. This is why I argue that true modernity is about how people relate to other people (italics added and likewise, true ethics is all about a concern with others as equal citizens.
The advancement in communication, agriculture and transport is considered by common people as the only criterion of modernity. Our sociologists come from the high-caste Hindu background, their professional and intellectual training has been in the colonisers countries, they are interested in continuity and change and therefore they have created a flood of research material which stands on the pillars of evolutionary structural-functional method. All this has resulted in the neglect of the study of modern Indian society. The challenge given by local tradition to modernity has been analyzed by Yogendra Singh: The distinction between modern values and traditional values may be maintained on the ground that modern values, like science, being evolutionary universal, might not be typical. Both Yogendra Singh and Dipankar Gupta accept that modernity, in a way or the other, either strengthens traditions or traditions are mistaken as modernity. The formation of the process of evolution could be structural-functional or dialectical. The building is based on the traditional Hindu system of architecture, using the principles of vastu shastra, where both the science of architecture and nature are mutually respected and the ancient beliefs of using geometric patterns ( yantra. Generally speaking, technology and consumerism are consequences of the four characteristics of modernization listed above, and do not by themselves constitute modernity. The true modernity, in fact, consists of multiple modernities and viewed from this perspective, the Indian modernity is a specific variety of multiple modernities. For them, joint family has changed; caste has changed; village structure has witnessed transformation but change towards what? In this respect, Madan writes. Drawing from both these approaches to the study of modernization, Yogendra Singh defines it as under: Modernization approximates to such a cultural order.
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The situation in India is different. Desai examined Indias social history in Marxian perspective. It was massively anchored in functionalism. Correa proclaimed in his essay The Blessings of the Sky that: In India, the sky has profoundly affected our relationship to built-form, and to open space. Anthony Giddens has put a essay on modernity in indian homes very sound thesis that modernity is multi-dimensional. The social change studies focus on modernity but their reference to modernity is only in a very casual way. Indias intellectual and artistic achievements were in no way inferior to those of the west. Why the Village, why so obsessive a return to its troubled texture, to crises for its acharya (teacher to conflict for its young, to disaster for its women? Modernity functions as an economic and social tool to achieve some wealth, flexibility, and innovation for individuals and groups; Tradition functions, partly and at times largely, as a mythological state which produces the sensation of larger connectedness and stability. Nor had they any experience of western modernity. Dipankar argues that modernity is not a single large block, a monolith.
Thus, the definition and meaning of modernization boils down to the following points according to Srinivas:. Inter-subjectivity is about being able to participate in one anothers lives and share in one anothers fate. Modernity involves certain other features also such as human values and relationships. This bipolar approach seems to be borrowed from.P. I think the Village is never real, even for those who work the hardest to evoke what they remember very specifically from their early experiences there. Architecture is not a moveable feast, like music, essay on modernity in indian homes Correa explained in an interview: You can give the same concert in three different places, but you cant just repeat buildings and clone them across the world. House in Koramangala Courtesy of riba, while Correas low-cost housing in Mumbai may have adapted and evolved over time, many of Correas impressive institutional landmarks have a lasting presence in India. Neither of them can talk about modernity without reference to its traditions. This was Yogendra Singhs position about modernization in his essays contained in this volume.
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Ahmedabad, built in 1963. Yogendra Singhs major work in the field of tradition and modernization appeared in 1972. After the attainment of independence, whatever sociology developed in India was highly influenced by American and British sociology. His vision sits at the nexus defining the contemporary Indian sensibility and it articulates a new Indian identity with a language that has a global resonance. Srinivas has not discussed modernization as an independent theme of social change essay on modernity in indian homes in India. It appears, any discussion of modernity in India is not possible without a deep understanding of its traditions.
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At best for essay on modernity in indian homes most of these functionalists the change is from Hindu social traditions to adaptive changes. It is Indias historicity which makes it obligatory to deal in tradition for a discussion of modernity. Dignity of the individual;. Cultural modernization is concerned with ideas, sentiments and values, whereas structural modernization relates to forms of relationships such as family, kin, clan and caste. Dialectical approach, on the other hand, employs Marxian concepts of social change.
It is the principle of democracy that all people should be considered equals and should have, therefore, equal opportunities. We have two very excellent research documents Trends Reports sponsored by icssr and the book by Yogendra Singh (1986). The evolutionary approach is based on more systematic theoretical assumptions. Correa, who died in 2015 at the age of 84, embraced the challenge of designing buildings for the urban poor, yet he never compromised on quality he treated the low-rise, high-density housing of the Belapur project in Navi Mumbai with the same attention-to-detail. Mukerji and modernity :.P. Using resources that were readily available also meant there was no need to import goods, which helped reduce the expense of each project, but also provided much-needed work for local craftsmen. Indian sociologist, Dipankar Gupta in his book, Mistaken Modernity essay on modernity in indian homes (2000 has made yet another statement which applies to different nation-states. But in the mytho-cultural life of the nation, Village is always already a sign for the). Modernity as a distinct form of enquiry came late during the seventies. Yogendra Singh is concerned with the transformation of Indian society.
It treats modernization as an evolutionary stage in the life of human society. It symbolizes a rational attitude towards issues, and their evaluation from a universalistic and not particularistic viewpoint; when it involves an emotional response to problems, orientation is emphatic and not constructive; modernization is rooted in the scientific worldview; it has. The dialectical approach has remained restricted to only a handful of sociologists such.P. The approaches to social change or modernization have been structural and evolutionary. Traditionalism goes hand-in-hand with modernization.