Frequency of binge drinking behavior in the past four weeks correlates strongly with the measured scales as well. While most studies have focused on language comprehension, my research project addressed this issue from another point of view, which was language production. Mean score on prototype favorability was.8 points,.1 on prototype similarity,.8 points on willingness,.7 on alcohol expectancy and.9 points on social norm. Prototype favorability reached with a possible maximum of 50 points from 16 to 44 points and had a mean.3 points. Buccino,., Riggio,., Melli,., Binkofski,., Gallese,., Rizzolatti,.
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Ybarra,., Trafimow,. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 769780. The more similar the respondent feels, the higher the out coming score (maximum score of 5 points). Thus is there a difference of one glass between the original binge drinking concept created by Wechsler in 1992 and the binge drinking concept measured in this research. A lot of adolescents in Germany are threatened by these health risks because a habit called binge drinking, which is defined by Wechsler (1992) as the consumption of five or more drinks on one occasion becomes more and more common among adolescents (BZgA, 2007). Cantor,., Mischel,. A dual-process approach to health risk decision making: The prototype willingness model. The concept alcohol expectancy is derived from Banduras Social cognitive theory (1977 which states that a behavior like drinking alcohol is influenced by outcome expectancies in relation to perceived consequences this consumption could have. The prototype/willingness model aims at explaining and predicting adolescents health risk behavior by introducing the idea of this behavior being a reaction to social events. The general terms and other hints for the defenses are announced in InSIS. After deleting the items I think bachalor thesis that this person is rough and I think that this person is boring a reliability analysis gave a Cronbachs Alpha.79. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17,271-281. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 370405.
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but no significant effect emerged. Claudia bonmassar, trento (italy) email: email protected, bachelor Thesis (Summary) Title: Movimenti e parole. In the 1950s, developments in logic, statistics, and programming languages have inspired amodal theories which are based on bachalor thesis principles fundamentally different from those underlying perception. Participants were told to perform the naming task while moving either their hand or their foot and were asked to be fast and accurate in naming. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 46, 3947. Willingness was assessed by letting the respondent imagine a risk situation (Image you are at a party with some friends and you would have already drunken five glasses of alcohol. Regarding to the active movement component, blocks were divided in two conditions counterbalanced among participants. But gender does not seem to be the only factor influencing binge drinking behavior.
A difference between frequent and occasional binge drinkers was made in this research. 16 Italian native speakers (mean age:.4; sd:.6) participated in the second experiment. Laudanna,., Thornton,.M., Brown,., Burani,., Marconi,. Alcohol consumption and the social cognitions in relation to binge drinking behavior of 111 respondents were measured with a questionnaire. Thus do male respondents seem to have a higher prototype similarity, higher prototype favorability, a stronger willingness and feel more social pressure to engage in alcohol consumption or binge drinking. In conclusion one can formulate some expectations regarding different roles of prototype/willingness, alcohol expectancies and social norms in relation to binge drinking behavior by male and female adolescents. The Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review of its Applications to Health-Related Behaviors. A critical discussion of the project with a focus on its weak points, together with a brief comment on future perspectives in the research field ended my thesis. The mean score of the occasional binge drinkers on the prototype favorability was.7 points,.7 points on the prototype similarity,.3 points on willingness,.1 points on alcohol expectancy and.8 points on social norm. It describes that adolescents do not plan to engage in health risk behavior but happen to get into situations where the opportunity to perform this behavior is present.
Stage IV: Define the topic of your work. Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Un corpus dell'italiano scritto contemporaneo dalla parte del ricevente. Tettamanti,., Buccino,., Saccuman,.C., Gallese,., Danna,., Scifo,.,. Differences on the willingness scale gave T (109).09,.001 and bachalor thesis a 95 confidence interval of a difference between.6 points and.6 points. Differences between frequent and occasional binge drinkers Occasional binge drinkers N 52 Frequent binge drinkers N 59 p -values Prototype favorability.7*.8*.001 Prototype similarity.7*.1*.001 Willingness.3*.8*.001 Alcohol expectancy.8*.0*.001 Social norm.1. Qualitative and quantitative them For case study research, explain your rationale criteria for choices of cases and for sampling; Alternative methodology and techniques. Stage viii: Conclude your study with a synthetic report and alternative recommendations of changes, modifications etc. Then someone would offer you a glass of alcohol.) and letting him judge the probability of four reactions (Would you take the drink and drink it, take the drink without drinking it but only to put it down somewhere, go away (e.g. Registration for the defense of your thesis should be done in extra-semestral courses section at Students portal in InSIS. . Despite these limitations of this research the results one got and the conclusions one could draw were interesting and challenge further investigation of the binge drinking phenomenon and the social cognitions related. Gibbons,.X., Gerrard,., Boney McCoy,. Godin,., Kok,.
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The smoking problem: A review of the research and theory in behavioral risk modification. By asking questions like Take a moment to think about the type of kid your age who drinks. After that questions regarding the alcohol consumption followed. The most popular scale to assess positive alcohol expectancies is the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (Brown., 1980, 1987) which covers the six factors global positive changes, sexual enhancement, physical social pleasure, increased social assertiveness, relaxation tension reduction and arousal power. 52 respondents (46.8) stated to have been engaged in binge drinking nil to three times in the past four weeks. Health risk behavior of adolescents in D?lmen Aim of this study was to explain health risk behavior like binge drinking of adolescents from D?lmen in Germany with a combination of the Prototype/willingness model (Gibbons, 1995 alcohol expectancy (Brown. Cognitive motivation and drug use: A 9-year longitudinal study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 85-93. According to the classical theory of knowledge, conceptual representations are abstract and symbolic. The thesis defense can be separated from the final examination. Adolescents take up such particular habits to be seen by others as wild or independent.
The other 59 respondents (53.2) stated to have been engaged in binge drinking four or more times in the past four weeks. According to the results and the conclusions presented above one can say that especially the Prototype/willingness model seems to be applicable for adolescents from Dülmen. The prototype similarity was measured with another 5-point scale ranging from Not similar at all to Totally similar. Stage I: Specify a range (area /field) of your interests. In studies on alcohol consumption evidence for this relation has been found (Gibbons, Helweg-Larsen Gerrard, 1995). The only significant variable is prototype similarity (.42;.001).
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Stage VII: Carry out an empirical study. This is referred to as prototype similarity or prototype matching (Chassin, Tetzloff, Hershey, 1985). The only exception is the alcohol expectancy scale, where no significant differences between the genders could be observed. The statements were for the AEQ (Brown., 1980, 1987 When I feel high from drinking, everything seems to feel better, Having a few drinks is a nice way to celebrate special occasions, Drinking makes. Zwaan,.A., Madden,.J., Yaxley,.H., Aveyard,.E. Skyscraper) and 14 fillers as neutral condition were collected, resized and then used as visual stimuli. For the defense bachalor thesis prepare a ppt(x) or pdf presentation lasting up to 10-15 minutes where you emphasize the goals, research methods and your most important findings. Along with the male respondents consuming more alcohol, they score higher on the social cognitions measured. Practical or Creative Part, your solution of the problem calculations, analyses, discussions; your own input must be clear and sufficient! Gender differences in alcohol consumption Male respondents N 61 Female respondents N 50 p -value Mean of days during week.0*.3*.001 Mean.2l glasses during week.9*.3*.001 Mean of days on weekend.7. Recommended structure of a thesis, the thesis is printed in A4 format. Do not forget to prepare the answers to questions from both evaluations.
Idea of this study is to combine the prototype/willingness model with alcohol expectancy and social norm to explain binge drinking behavior of adolescents in Germany. Hammer 24 pictures of non-manipulable objects (e.g. This allows the conclusion that a person who engages in binge drinking behavior more frequent and more excessive has a more positive prototype concept, feels more similar to the typical binge drinker and has a stronger willingness to engage in binge drinking behavior. A Mann-Whitney Test done with the prototype similarity scale gave.45 and.001. The sample chosen consisted exclusively of higher educated people like students or grammar school people. Gender differences on the social cognitions Males N 61 Females N 50 p-value Prototype favorability.0*.2*.001 Prototype similarity.9*.9*.001 Willingness.7*.3*.001 Social norm.6*.1*.001 Alcohol expectancy.7.2.50 Differences between frequent. Stage II: Browse and then look into accessible subject literature. Differences between the genders in the mean scores on the prototype favorability scale, the willingness scale, the prototype similarity scale and the social norm scale are statistically significant. Reveal your authorship input and present the key research results; An application/conclusion of empirical studies; A prescription and recommendation from the author. Recommended line spacing.15, using a proportional serif font of size.
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Male respondents had a mean.0 points on prototype favorability, a mean.9 points on prototype similarity, a mean.7 points on willingness and a mean.6 points on social norms, whereas the female. One could expect that adolescents who engage in binge drinking behavior more often could feel a stronger social norm to engage in this behavior. American Journal of Health Promotion 11,. Drinking habits as cofactors of risk for alcohol induced liver damage. Regarding the alcohol consumption one can observe several differences between the male and the female respondents. These prototypes act like goal-states and motivate young people to engage in health risk behavior (Leventhal Cleary, 1980).
The result was.387,.001. This decision is often referred to as behavioral intention. Grounding language in action. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 107121. 1990; Jones., 2001). We critically analysed our experimental design and then attempted to set up a second experiment, in which the foot movement was replaced with the absence of any movement. Thus differences between the means on these scales will be tested with an Independent Samples T-Test.
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(2005).Listening to action-related sentences activates fronto-parietal motor bachalor thesis circuits. Alcohol consumption on weekend (Friday to Sunday) ranged from 0 days to 3 days with an average.5 days of alcohol consumption. It has its origin in the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein Ajzen, 1980) and its follower the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1985). The opponent must be a university-educated expert in the field, and must not be a related party. An Independent Samples T-Test was done with the differences of the means of the scores on the prototype favorability scale, willingness scale, social norm scale and alcohol expectancy scale. Stage IX: Describe a solution to a problem. To the toilet say No, thanks and deny the drink) with a 5-point scale from certainly not to certainly well (Cronbachs Alpha.77). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. Prototype favorability correlates significant with prototype similarity (.406 significant with willingness (.323 significant with alcohol expectancy (.252) and significant with social norm (.471). Moreover, long term harms like cirrhosis, non-cirrhotic liver damage (. Variation in perceived college drinking norms and its impact on alcohol abuse: A nationwide survey. I think that this person is smart, rough, popular, immature, cool, confident, independent, not accurate, not attractive, boring, careful, selfish) with a 5-point scale reaching from totally disagree to totally agree. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 961974.
All correlations are significant at the two-tailed.01 level. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Center for Alcohol Studies. Brown,.A., Goldman,.S. Please use the templates below for the first pages of your Thesis and for the two reviewers Available Topics To see all of the available topics, please use the link below: More information on e-mail. Third, average days of alcohol consumption on weekend was assessed by asking On how many days on weekend (Friday until Sunday) do you normally drink alcohol?, with answers ranging from 0 days to 3 days. Enschede, Netherlands, tutors:. Willingness reached with a possible maximum from 40 points from 8 to 20 points, with a mean.6 points.
Three questions were based on the prototype/willingness model. In the course of the defense it is important to clarify your own contributions. Again, the only significant variable is prototype similarity (.37;.001). The physical submission consists of one printed version (hardcover). First, a model containing the three variables from the prototype/willingness model is explored with a regression analysis. 23.3 KB Download Bachelor Thesis Topics.0 KB Download.