Most kids get their prejudice roots from their parents at a very young age; it can come from a ton of different situations where the parent makes a comment, joke, etc, about a certain group. The Hindu and Muslim boys and girls were matched on caste, level of education, age, sex and area of residence. Prejudice is a product of social learning. The most common finding is that individuals of low socio economic status are most likely to have unfavourable attitudes towards blacks. Behavior is any observable action or reaction of living organisms. (2) Propaganda can be most successful in eliminating prejudice when attempts are made to enlighten the ignorant and provide emotional satisfaction simultaneously through facilitation and improvement in intergroup contact, understanding and harmony. (i) Insecurity: A person who feels secured about his job, position and status in the family or society takes an objective view of the situation that he comes across.
The Nature Of, prejudice, psychology, essay
The persons involved must view one another as typical of their respective groups. Thirdly, any economic, political and sociological policy that can minimise the frustration of any important need is a major weapon in the control of motivational factors leading to prejudice. The range of social distance is very high in Indian societies because of inadequate interpersonal relationship. Behavior cannot be studied without the organism there in body. (c) Social Categorization : The In group and outgroup feeling leads to social categorization which is also a cause of prejudice. Baron and Byrne (1988) have defined prejudice as a specific type of attitude where individual traits and behaviour play little role. There is no time to wait, analyse and reason before accepting the facts. So, it is high time to start research in this field. Pathological personality systems like paranoia is found to be related to prejudice. The main findings of the study are summarised as follows: (i) Boys have significantly more prejudice than girls. This leads to conflict and clash. Low caste Hindu girls higher psychology prejudice essay show significantly greater religious and sex prejudice than high caste Hindu girls. It refers to perceiving the relationship between factors or variables that actually do not exist and obviously this perception of not existent things cause prejudice.
In order to examine it, you need to understand the environment and what he/she/it knows, thinks, and remembers. Murphy started the scientific study on prejudice in India sponsored by the Govt, of India with the help of the unesco. Which means, in practice, that a man is to be judged, not by his own character and actions, but by the characters and actions of a collective of ancestors. But gradually they learn to discriminate. When a prejudice is not consistent with ones self image, it may change or reduce. According to Kretch and Crutchfield, prejudice refers to some attitude or belief higher psychology prejudice essay that serves to place the objects of the attitudes and beliefs at an advantage or disadvantage. Advertisements: In forming a prejudice, thus, one is guided by the decisions, attitudes, stereotypes and of course, prejudices of the group. Studies also show that young people are relatively more tolerant compared to older people.
We live in a semifree capitalist society today. Miller and Bugelski have demonstrated that the frustration of even relatively unimportant needs like seeing a movie in a theatre lead to racial antipathy. Thus, there should be unity in diversity. Tools and equipments used in the study include: (i) A personal data questionnaire covering information about sociological and personal factors such as age, sex, class, religion, caste, parental income and area of residence and (ii) Prejudices scale measuring religious. (4) Investigations and adjustment relating to intergroup differences and to reward intergroup understanding and harmony is desirable.
Higher, psychology, essays - Weepam
Persons with high level of prejudice belief and disbelief systems are rigidly organised whereas in other individuals the systems are relatively flexible. As the Klan gained members, it higher psychology prejudice essay became more powerful and an increasing number of people felt as if their lives would be improved if they joined the group. Cultural factors play a very important role in the development of prejudice. Further, the more educated people were less religious than the less educated people. A paranoiac has been described as person who is not capable of understanding other people and who continuously attributes all types of motives to other people. The people that study the behaviors are called psychologists.
As they grow because of the exposure to various experiences in the society, they learn to develop prejudices and feeling of discrimination to children of outgroups. Today, the pressure is more on social and economic stereotypes in the development of prejudice. Methods of Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination. Meaning, Definition and Characteristic of Prejudice. Educated group indicated larger significant stereotypes than their uneducated counterparts. The four techniques are as follows:. High caste Hindu boys show significantly greater sex prejudice than high caste Hindu girls. Meaning, Definition and Characteristic of Prejudice: Prejudice is a disease of the society persisting from age to age. Once every industry is saturated with geniuses, Americas production and economy will go straight to the top.
Prejudice and Discrimination in, psychology, simply
Some Indian Studies on Prejudice: In India, research on prejudice is of special significance because of various castes, creeds, communities and religions in Indian society. He has summarised the findings of this study In the Minds of Men. Yet so many times I find myself doing this; everyone does, even if they dont admit. Here historical attitude influences this discrimination. The studies of Lazarsfeld (1947 however, indicate that radio broadcast meant to promote intergroup relations were not listened by the group to whom the discussion was addressed. (5) By improving the standard of minority groups and communities which are considered to be the likely source of tension because of their low standard prejudice can be reduced. Murphy has emphasized on dependence, early freedom from frustration leading to the absence of habits, controlling aggression, lack of opportunities in childhood for group planning and thinking, leading to lack of methods of resolving conflicts between groups in adulthood responsible for development of prejudice. But this is not correct. Smeelley and Bayton (1978) found that beliefs about social class provided more powerful stereotypes than did beliefs about race. Prejudice can be reduced by eliminating the repressed, frustrated and socially unacceptable need structures. (i) Sociological Determinants : Socio-Economic Status: Socio-economic status usually show a positive correlation with antisemitism. As a result of such prejudices, people confine their social interaction within a restricted group. When contact between initially hostile groups occurs prejudice between them does seem to decrease.
I am very sure that few members of the Ku Klux Klan originally felt as if whites are superior to all other races. Beliefs and attitudes of racial prejudice frequently stem from emotional experiences and needs. (a) Authoritarian Personality: The book Authoritarian Personality suggests that prejudice is a result of a particular set of characters shared by authoritarian personality. Religion: Studies indicate that religious background or religion as a causative factor of prejudice do not provide any consistent picture. In the drama of real life, our in group represents for us the forces of good and they as an out group represent the forces of evil. But identification of appropriate contact is urgent as various instances of prejudice are seen in areas of interaction between majority and minority group members. Intolerance of Ambiguity : Frenkel and Brunswik (1948) found that children high in prejudice tended to be intolerant of ambiguity and dichotomous in their thinking about sex roles. They simply felt as if they would fit in better and would be more popular or on a higher level if they believed such ideas. The emphasis is, thus, in universality. One of the basic reasons behind the development of prejudice is stereotype.
Essay on, prejudice (ii psychological, determinants
There are several different types of psychologist for different problems. So, they develop prejudice towards such objects. Venkatasubramanyu (1967) using a self rating scale tried to reduce prejudice towards the Hindi language of the Northerners and the Brahmin caste of the South Indian College students. Prejudice has become a complex problem in our society today and much of our worlds history is based upon such hatred. By producing social distance and social tension prejudice functions mostly in a negative manner. Prejudice increases particularly when a group feels that he is threatened by another group. I believe it all comes down to parents teaching their children right from wrong in our world and raising them in an higher psychology prejudice essay environment that is centered around acceptance of different ways of life and cultures of people. Some have suggested that any attack on prejudice can be successful when its core its attacked and both the group needs and personal needs to be taken care of to combat prejudice. This is perhaps because of the difference in status.e., minority children (Blacks) came from disadvantaged status. But no significant difference is obtained between the prejudices of Hindus and Muslims which is definitely an interesting and significant finding. (e) Cognitive Sources of Prejudice : The key process of social cognition refers to the fundamental ways in which one thinks about other persons. Those rights are all that we need as free citizens in a government that has limitations (the Bill of Rights).
Essay on, prejudice 31fps
Further, social distance was found to be greatest between Brahmins and Harijans and least between Brahmins and Marathas. In education and school psychology, they study the higher psychology prejudice essay process of education and works to promote the intellectual, social, and emotional development of children in the school environment. High caste Muslim boys and girls do not show significant difference in the extent of religious, caste or sex prejudices. If all people become equal in everything, probably there will be very less prejudice which is, of course, practically impossible. This would have a domino effect: kids will push each other in school from a very young age (which is the most important time) to work to their highest ability. I rest my case. Illusiory correlations which appear to play some role in the growth of prejudices and stereotypes as found by Spears, Vander Plight and Eiser (1985) develop due to the basic tendency to give more attention to unusual and distinctive events. Thus, homogeneity can reduce prejudice and if all the groups are assimilated in to one homogeneous groups some common belief, cultural set up, attitude and religious pattern prejudice will be drastically reduced. Such biased and stereotyped thinking are the core of various prejudices which are due to mindlessness. High caste Hindu and Muslim do not differ significantly in any category of prejudice. Similarly, sex stereotypes lead to sex prejudices. There was a significant positive correlation among these prejudices and religiousity, authoritarianism and anxiety, but these were negatively related to religious information. Integrated job situations, integrated summer camps, youth festivals, NCC camps can also reduce prejudice.
Katz (1976) observed that by the age of three or four years children are able to distinguish between blacks and whites and also possess different feelings towards them. This is a tough situation, and is extremely true in the lives of a lot of kids (especially in inner-cities). It means expectations about the possibility of further events or behaviours that act to increase the likelihood that the event or behaviour will occur. All mentally sick people may not necessarily develop prejudice. Asians, African-Americans, Hispanics, Caucasians, and all other ethnic groups need to look past each others physical attributes and start looking inside a person to see who they truly are. Particularly the origin, development and causes of prejudice are traced to the early years of socialization. Direct Intergroup Contact : This is known as the contact hypothesis and has been discussed earlier. According to Fieldman (1985 prejudice is a positive or negative evaluation or judgement of members of a particular group which are based primarily on the fact of their membership in the group and not necessarily because of particular characteristics of individual members. The children were instructed to give the experimenter the doll that looked like a white child and the doll that looked like a coloured child. In conclusion, there is no way that prejudice will ever be abolished in any society; it is futile to even try. You have heard and believed a particular nation is war minded. Still it is essential to study the prejudice of young school going children with the help of the existing methodology.
Why I Study, psychology (10
Though these studies do not refute the role of parents in the causation of prejudice, they, however, suggest that heavy weightage should not be given to the role of parents in the transmission of prejudice. Actual conflict between the ingroup and outgroup infinitely adds more effectively to the intensification of prejudice. Ayn Rand says: higher psychology prejudice essay A genius is a genius, regardless of the number of morons who belong to the same race and a moron is a moron, regardless of the number of geniuses who share his racial origin. Prejudices are basically attitudes shared by a group as a whole and the person of the out group is considered a member of a rejected group. Inconsistent information are even, sometimes, strongly embedded in ones personality. Some prejudices present real social danger leading to conflict and struggle between political parties, socio-economic groups, races, sexes and religions. According to Ansari (1956) group prejudice between Hindus and Muslims have been very strong and widespread to distort intergroup perception, judgement and evaluation of the qualities. Despite the warning by academicians, social reformers, social scientists and by every sane individual for that matter, against jumping to conclusions, we do this where other persons are concerned. But practically it may not be possible. Panchabhra (1966) collected data from 150 Adivasi undergraduates belonging to Santhal, Oraon and Munda tribes of Chotta Nagpur, Bihar. Prejudices indicate unscientific, unfounded judgement and assume that they possess certain traits and take it for granted.
Steps should be taken for adequate satisfaction of mans common and socially acceptable needs. Only significant difference was observed in the stereotypes of the two groups. (iii) Psycho-Dynamic Causes : According to Freud, man is born with aggressive and destructive tendencies and the desire for war is quite unconscious. A prejudice may be defined as a composite of stereotypes, myths, legends in which the group lebel or symbol is used to classify, characterize or define an individual or a group considered as a totality. Interdependent Interaction : Contact becomes very effective when the two people cooperate in a mutually interdependent activity. There is no significant difference between boys and girls in religious and caste prejudices. But the reverse is not true. You have to be very aware of your surroundings and what you are dealing with. In this essay we will discuss about Prejudice. But they result in guilt feeling, emotional conflicts and aggressive defence reactions etc.
Essays ) Good Colleges
The rest he prefers to forget. This is done on the basis of ones name, place of residence, school or economic status. The nature of prejudice is diverse. Prejudice refers to both positive and negative attitude towards the member of some distinct social group. Today, there are so many different people in this world that stereotypes are almost always incorrect, as many people choose not to be followers, but to be individuals. In societies, in which intergroup and intra group relationships are based on political and economic power and are not integrated or planned there necessarily arises a scale of social distance which becomes incorporated in the individual members.